By Kováč & Plašienka (2002).This textbook describes the structure of a geologically unique part of Europe located at the junction of three principal regional geological domains – the Bohemian Massif, the Alpine-Carpathian Orogenic Belt and the Pannonian Basin System. This area is not strictly defined; it covers the areas of western Slovakia, southern Moravia, northeastern Austria and northwestern Hungary. Some units, which do not occur in these areas, but are important for understanding the structure of the entire orogen are characterized here too. From the point of view of plate tectonics, all the important phenomena and tectonic elements accompanying the origin of collisional mountain belts are present: (1) platform foreland, including the inner and frontal parts of the Variscan orogen in the Moravian part of the Bohemian Massif (even with its own Variscan foreland); (2) flexural basin of the Alpine-Carpathian Foredeep situated above the submerged slopes of the platform; (3) Meso-Alpine accretionary complex of the Flysch Belt, comprising sedimentary, and partially also volcanic complexes detached from the submerged part of the platform and probably also from the subducted zones originally underlain by oceanic crust; (4) complex and long time deformed zones at the boundary between external and central zones of the Alpine-Carpathian orogen, with various units of enigmatic origin; (5) central orogenic zones with Paleo-Alpine nappe structure, involving superficial detachment nappes of sedimentary cover, as well as huge nappes of the pre-Alpine basement. Metamorphic core complexes are exhumed from beneath these nappes, exposing the deep structures of the orogen and partially also subducted oceanic complexes of more external zones; (6) internal zones of the Alpine-Carpathian orogen, reflecting the earliest Alpine compression events; (7) remnants of superimposed, partly still compressional synorogenic Meso-Alpine sedimentary basins in several zones; (8) Neo-Alpine basin structures of several genetic types with complex tectonic and sedimentary evolution, reflecting the processes of back-arc rifting and lithospheric extension; (9) chains of neovolcanic mountains related to the processes of back-arc extension and (10) miscellaneous Pliocene to Quaternary deposits that recorded the terminating, but still active orogenic and basin-forming processes in the area.
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Geological structure of the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian junction and neighbouring slopes of the Bohemian Massif
Categoría: Ingeniería Geológica